php variable substitution/expansion

We know that a variable will be substituted with its value in a “” delimited string such as:


echo “this is $var1″;

will print “this is var1″.

This variable expansion only happens when the variable name is not preceded with \. If $var is preceded with \, the \ acts as an escape character, which escapes the following $, making $ an ordinary character, and of course \ itself won’t be in the string. So the following code will print “$var2″:


echo $var2;

But we should notice that the variable substitution is not iterative. So:

echo $v1;

will print “$v3″, i.e., after $v2 is expanded to “$v3″, $v3 won’t be expanded to “v3″ any more. The following code includes a subtle error. Can you find it?


$content=”old price is $321, new price is what?”;


echo $content;

Can you figure out what the output is? Newbies may think it will print “old price is $321, new price is $123?”. Unfortunately, it is not true. The actual output is “old price is $321, new price is 3?”. Why should this happen? We should analysis the execution process of the preg_replace statement. In the first step, variables get expanded, i.e., the preg_replace statement becomes:


Note that when preg_replace is executed in the second step, $12 in the replacement string will be replaced with the captured value in the matching process, in this case, there are only two captured values: $0=what,$1=what, $2-$99 are empty. Because php only supports 100 captured values($0-$99), so $123 is recognized as {$12}3, and {$12} is substituted with the captured value “”(empty string). In the last step, the replacement string “3” is used to replace the the patten and get the final result.

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